Leg length discrepancy, or as it has been alternatively termed, the short leg syndrome, is by far the most important postural asymmetry. Limb length discrepancy is simply defined as a condition where one leg is shorter than the other. If a substantial difference exists, disruptive effects on gait and posture can occur. Leg length discrepancy can be divided into two etiological groups. Structural. True shortening of the skeleton from congenital, traumatic or diseased origins. Functional. Development from altered mechanics of the lower body, such as foot hyperpronation or supination, pelvic obliquity, muscle/joint imbalances, poor trunk stabilization and deep fascial strain patterns.
The causes of LLD are many, including a previous injury, bone infection, bone diseases (dysplasias), inflammation (arthritis) and neurologic conditions. Previously broken bones may cause LLD by healing in a shortened position, especially if the bone was broken in many pieces (comminuted) or if skin and muscle tissue around the bone were severely injured and exposed (open fracture). Broken bones in children sometimes grow faster for several years after healing, causing the injured bone to become longer. Also, a break in a child?s bone through a growth center (located near the ends of the bone) may cause slower growth, resulting in a shorter extremity. Bone infections that occur in children while they are growing may cause a significant LLD, especially during infancy. Bone diseases may cause LLD, as well; examples are neurofibromatosis, multiple hereditary exostoses and Ollier disease. Inflammation of joints during growth may cause unequal extremity length. One example is juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis, the joint degeneration that occurs in adults, very rarely causes a significant LLD.
The effects vary from patient to patient, depending on the cause of the discrepancy and the magnitude of the difference. Differences of 3 1/2 to 4 percent of the total length of the lower extremity (4 cm or 1 2/3 inches in an average adult), including the thigh, lower leg and foot, may cause noticeable abnormalities while walking and require more effort to walk. Differences between the lengths of the upper extremities cause few problems unless the difference is so great that it becomes difficult to hold objects or perform chores with both hands. You and your physician can decide what is right for you after discussing the causes, treatment options and risks and benefits of limb lengthening, including no treatment at all. Although an LLD may be detected on a screening examination for curvature of the spine (scoliosis), LLD does not cause scoliosis. There is controversy about the effect of LLD on the spine. Some studies indicate that people with an LLD have a greater incidence of low back pain and an increased susceptibility to injuries, but other studies refute this relationship.
The only way to decipher between anatomical and functional leg length inequalities (you can have both) is by a physical measurement and series of biomechanical tests. It is actually a simple process and gets to the true cause of some runner?s chronic foot, knee, hip and back pain. After the muscles are tested and the legs are measured it may be necessary to get a special X-ray that measures both of your thighs (Femurs) and legs (Tibias). The X-ray is read by a medical radiologist who provides a report of the actual difference down to the micrometer leaving zero room for error. Once the difference in leg length is known, the solution becomes clear.
Non Surgical Treatment
Heel lifts Raise the heel on the shorter leg. It is applied either to the heel of the custom orthotic or to the inside of the shoe under the insole at the heel. Generally if the discrepancy is greater than 3/8 of an inch, the modification is applied externally on the footwear. Custom made orthotics help to provide proper support and alignment to the foot, controlling conditions such as over pronation. Orthopedic Footwear, properly fitted, to which a lift might be applied inside or out.
height increase exercises
Surgical options in leg length discrepancy treatment include procedures to lengthen the shorter leg, or shorten the longer leg. Your child's physician will choose the safest and most effective method based on the aforementioned factors. No matter the surgical procedure performed, physical therapy will be required after surgery in order to stretch muscles and help support the flexibility of the surrounding joints. Surgical shortening is safer than surgical lengthening and has fewer complications. Surgical procedures to shorten one leg include removing part of a bone, called a bone resection. They can also include epiphysiodesis or epiphyseal stapling, where the growth plate in a bone is tethered or stapled. This slows the rate of growth in the surgical leg.